/ kubernetes

Deploying Kubernetes cluster from scratch

Deploying Kubernetes cluster from scratch

Kubernetes is a production-grade container orchestrator.

I wrote this guide in a way that you should be able to get your Kubernetes
cluster running as simple as going through step-by-step & copy-paste.

Please let me know in case of issues or suggestions, I will be happy to improve
this doc.

You will need 4x 2GB RAM VM's:

  • 2x controller nodes running Kubernetes core services and the etcd;
  • 2x worker nodes running kubelet services;

Additionally, each node will be running Kubernetes essential services such as
kube-dns, kube-proxy, weave-net and Docker.

Preconfiguration

  1. Set the correct time/date;
  2. Configure bridge netfilter and the IP forwarding;
for i in k8s-controller-1 k8s-controller-2 k8s-worker-1 k8s-worker-2; do
  ssh -o StrictHostKeyChecking=no root@$i \
    "timedatectl set-local-rtc 0; timedatectl set-timezone Europe/Prague"
  grep -w k8s /etc/hosts | ssh root@$i "tee -a /etc/hosts"
  echo -e "net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables=1\n\
           net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables=1\n\
           net.ipv4.ip_forward=1" \
    | ssh root@$i "tee /etc/sysctl.d/kubernetes.conf && \
        modprobe br_netfilter && sysctl -p /etc/sysctl.d/kubernetes.conf"
done

Generate x509 certs

  1. Create openssl configuration file;
  2. Generate x509 certificates;
ssh -A root@k8s-controller-1

Create openssl configuration file:

CONTROLLER1_IP=$(getent ahostsv4 k8s-controller-1 | tail -1 | awk '{print $1}')
CONTROLLER2_IP=$(getent ahostsv4 k8s-controller-2 | tail -1 | awk '{print $1}')
SERVICE_IP="10.96.0.1"

mkdir -p /etc/kubernetes/pki
cd /etc/kubernetes/pki

cat > openssl.cnf << EOF
[ req ]
distinguished_name = req_distinguished_name
[req_distinguished_name]
[ v3_ca ]
basicConstraints = critical, CA:TRUE
keyUsage = critical, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment, keyCertSign
[ v3_req_server ]
basicConstraints = CA:FALSE
keyUsage = critical, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
extendedKeyUsage = serverAuth
[ v3_req_client ]
basicConstraints = CA:FALSE
keyUsage = critical, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
extendedKeyUsage = clientAuth
[ v3_req_apiserver ]
basicConstraints = CA:FALSE
keyUsage = critical, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
extendedKeyUsage = serverAuth
subjectAltName = @alt_names_cluster
[ v3_req_etcd ]
basicConstraints = CA:FALSE
keyUsage = critical, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
extendedKeyUsage = serverAuth, clientAuth
subjectAltName = @alt_names_etcd
[ alt_names_cluster ]
DNS.1 = kubernetes
DNS.2 = kubernetes.default
DNS.3 = kubernetes.default.svc
DNS.4 = kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local
DNS.5 = k8s-controller-1
DNS.6 = k8s-controller-2
# DNS.7 = ${KUBERNETES_PUBLIC_ADDRESS}
IP.1 = ${CONTROLLER1_IP}
IP.2 = ${CONTROLLER2_IP}
IP.3 = ${SERVICE_IP}
# IP.4 = ${KUBERNETES_PUBLIC_IP}
[ alt_names_etcd ]
DNS.1 = k8s-controller-1
DNS.2 = k8s-controller-2
IP.1 = ${CONTROLLER1_IP}
IP.2 = ${CONTROLLER2_IP}
EOF

Kubernetes CA cert

used to sign the rest of K8s certs.

openssl ecparam -name secp521r1 -genkey -noout -out ca.key
chmod 0600 ca.key
openssl req -x509 -new -sha256 -nodes -key ca.key -days 3650 -out ca.crt \
            -subj "/CN=kubernetes-ca"  -extensions v3_ca -config ./openssl.cnf

kube apiserver cert

used as default x509 apiserver cert.

openssl ecparam -name secp521r1 -genkey -noout -out kube-apiserver.key
chmod 0600 kube-apiserver.key
openssl req -new -sha256 -key kube-apiserver.key -subj "/CN=kube-apiserver" \
  | openssl x509 -req -sha256 -CA ca.crt -CAkey ca.key -CAcreateserial \
                 -out kube-apiserver.crt -days 365 \
                 -extensions v3_req_apiserver -extfile ./openssl.cnf

apiserver kubelet client cert

used for x509 client authentication to the kubelet's HTTPS endpoint.

openssl ecparam -name secp521r1 -genkey -noout -out apiserver-kubelet-client.key
chmod 0600 apiserver-kubelet-client.key
openssl req -new -key apiserver-kubelet-client.key \
            -subj "/CN=kube-apiserver-kubelet-client/O=system:masters" \
  | openssl x509 -req -sha256 -CA ca.crt -CAkey ca.key -CAcreateserial \
                 -out apiserver-kubelet-client.crt -days 365 \
                 -extensions v3_req_client -extfile ./openssl.cnf

admin client cert

used by a human to administrate the cluster.

openssl ecparam -name secp521r1 -genkey -noout -out admin.key
chmod 0600 admin.key
openssl req -new -key admin.key -subj "/CN=kubernetes-admin/O=system:masters" \
  | openssl x509 -req -sha256 -CA ca.crt -CAkey ca.key -CAcreateserial \
                 -out admin.crt -days 365 -extensions v3_req_client \
                 -extfile ./openssl.cnf

Service Account key

As per https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/issues/22351#issuecomment-26082410

The service account token private key (sa.key) given only to the controller
manager, is used to sign the tokens.
The masters only need the public key portion (sa.pub) in order to verify the
tokens signed by the controller manager.

The service account public key has to be the same for all. In an HA setup
that means you need to explicitly give it to each apiserver (recommended) or
make all the apiservers use the same serving cert/private TLS key (not
recommended).

As a convenience, you can provide a private key to both, and the public key
portion of it will be used by the api server to verify token signatures.

As a further convenience, the api server's private key for it's serving
certificate is used to verify service account tokens if you don't specify
--service-account-key-file

--tls-cert-file and --tls-private-key-file are used to provide the
serving cert and key to the api server. If you don't specify these, the api
server will make a self-signed cert/key-pair and store it at
apiserver.crt/apiserver.key

openssl ecparam -name secp521r1 -genkey -noout -out sa.key
openssl ec -in sa.key -outform PEM -pubout -out sa.pub
chmod 0600 sa.key
openssl req -new -sha256 -key sa.key \
            -subj "/CN=system:kube-controller-manager" \
  | openssl x509 -req -sha256 -CA ca.crt -CAkey ca.key -CAcreateserial \
                 -out sa.crt -days 365 -extensions v3_req_client \
                 -extfile ./openssl.cnf

kube-scheduler cert

used to allow access to the resources required by the kube-scheduler
component.

openssl ecparam -name secp521r1 -genkey -noout -out kube-scheduler.key
chmod 0600 kube-scheduler.key
openssl req -new -sha256 -key kube-scheduler.key \
            -subj "/CN=system:kube-scheduler" \
  | openssl x509 -req -sha256 -CA ca.crt -CAkey ca.key -CAcreateserial \
                 -out kube-scheduler.crt -days 365 -extensions v3_req_client \
                 -extfile ./openssl.cnf

front proxy CA cert

used to sign front proxy client cert.

openssl ecparam -name secp521r1 -genkey -noout -out front-proxy-ca.key
chmod 0600 front-proxy-ca.key
openssl req -x509 -new -sha256 -nodes -key front-proxy-ca.key -days 3650 \
            -out front-proxy-ca.crt -subj "/CN=front-proxy-ca" \
            -extensions v3_ca -config ./openssl.cnf

front proxy client cert

used to verify client certificates on incoming requests before trusting
usernames in headers specified by --requestheader-username-headers

openssl ecparam -name secp521r1 -genkey -noout -out front-proxy-client.key
chmod 0600 front-proxy-client.key
openssl req -new -sha256 -key front-proxy-client.key \
            -subj "/CN=front-proxy-client" \
  | openssl x509 -req -sha256 -CA front-proxy-ca.crt \
                 -CAkey front-proxy-ca.key -CAcreateserial \
                 -out front-proxy-client.crt -days 365 \
                 -extensions v3_req_client -extfile ./openssl.cnf

kube-proxy cert

Create kube-proxy x509 cert only if you want to use a kube-proxy role
instead of a kube-proxy service account with its JWT token (kubernetes
secrets) for auhentication.

openssl ecparam -name secp521r1 -genkey -noout -out kube-proxy.key
chmod 0600 kube-proxy.key
openssl req -new -key kube-proxy.key \
            -subj "/CN=kube-proxy/O=system:node-proxier" \
  | openssl x509 -req -sha256 -CA ca.crt -CAkey ca.key -CAcreateserial \
                 -out kube-proxy.crt -days 365 -extensions v3_req_client \
                 -extfile ./openssl.cnf

etcd CA cert

etcd CA cert used to sign the rest of etcd certs.

openssl ecparam -name secp521r1 -genkey -noout -out etcd-ca.key
chmod 0600 etcd-ca.key
openssl req -x509 -new -sha256 -nodes -key etcd-ca.key -days 3650 \
            -out etcd-ca.crt -subj "/CN=etcd-ca" -extensions v3_ca \
            -config ./openssl.cnf

etcd cert

etcd cert used for securing connections to etcd (client-to-server).

openssl ecparam -name secp521r1 -genkey -noout -out etcd.key
chmod 0600 etcd.key
openssl req -new -sha256 -key etcd.key -subj "/CN=etcd" \
  | openssl x509 -req -sha256 -CA etcd-ca.crt -CAkey etcd-ca.key \
                 -CAcreateserial -out etcd.crt -days 365 \
                 -extensions v3_req_etcd -extfile ./openssl.cnf

etcd peer cert

etcd peer cert used for securing connections between peers (server-to-server).

openssl ecparam -name secp521r1 -genkey -noout -out etcd-peer.key
chmod 0600 etcd-peer.key
openssl req -new -sha256 -key etcd-peer.key -subj "/CN=etcd-peer" \
  | openssl x509 -req -sha256 -CA etcd-ca.crt -CAkey etcd-ca.key \
                 -CAcreateserial -out etcd-peer.crt -days 365 \
                 -extensions v3_req_etcd -extfile ./openssl.cnf

View certs

# for i in *crt; do
    echo $i:;
    openssl x509 -subject -issuer -noout -in $i;
    echo;
  done

admin.crt:
subject= /CN=kubernetes-admin/O=system:masters
issuer= /CN=kubernetes-ca

apiserver-kubelet-client.crt:
subject= /CN=kube-apiserver-kubelet-client/O=system:masters
issuer= /CN=kubernetes-ca

ca.crt:
subject= /CN=kubernetes-ca
issuer= /CN=kubernetes-ca

etcd-ca.crt:
subject= /CN=etcd-ca
issuer= /CN=etcd-ca

etcd.crt:
subject= /CN=etcd
issuer= /CN=etcd-ca

etcd-peer.crt:
subject= /CN=etcd-peer
issuer= /CN=etcd-ca

front-proxy-ca.crt:
subject= /CN=front-proxy-ca
issuer= /CN=front-proxy-ca

front-proxy-client.crt:
subject= /CN=front-proxy-client
issuer= /CN=front-proxy-ca

kube-apiserver.crt:
subject= /CN=kube-apiserver
issuer= /CN=kubernetes-ca

kube-scheduler.crt:
subject= /CN=system:kube-scheduler
issuer= /CN=kubernetes-ca

sa.crt:
subject= /CN=system:kube-controller-manager
issuer= /CN=kubernetes-ca

# Optional:
kube-proxy.crt:
subject= /CN=kube-proxy/O=system:node-proxier
issuer= /CN=kubernetes-ca

Copy the certs to controllers

ssh -o StrictHostKeyChecking=no root@k8s-controller-2 "mkdir /etc/kubernetes"
scp -pr -- /etc/kubernetes/pki/ k8s-controller-2:/etc/kubernetes/

Controller binaries

Install these binaries on all controller nodes:

TAG=v1.6.4
URL=https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/$TAG/bin/linux/amd64

curl -# -L -o /usr/bin/kube-apiserver $URL/kube-apiserver
curl -# -L -o /usr/bin/kube-controller-manager $URL/kube-controller-manager
curl -# -L -o /usr/bin/kube-scheduler $URL/kube-scheduler
curl -# -L -o /usr/bin/kube-proxy $URL/kube-proxy
curl -# -L -o /usr/bin/kubelet $URL/kubelet
curl -# -L -o /usr/bin/kubectl $URL/kubectl

chmod +x -- /usr/bin/kube*
mkdir -p /var/lib/{kubelet,kube-proxy}

Generate kube configs

kubeconfig files are used by a service or a user to authenticate oneself.

  1. Generate kubeconfig files on all controller nodes;

service account kubeconfig

CONTROLLER1_IP=$(getent ahostsv4 k8s-controller-1 | tail -1 | awk '{print $1}')
CONTROLLER2_IP=$(getent ahostsv4 k8s-controller-2 | tail -1 | awk '{print $1}')
INTERNAL_IP=$(hostname -I | awk '{print $1}')
KUBERNETES_PUBLIC_ADDRESS=$INTERNAL_IP

CLUSTER_NAME="default"
KCONFIG=controller-manager.kubeconfig
KUSER="system:kube-controller-manager"
KCERT=sa

cd /etc/kubernetes/

kubectl config set-cluster ${CLUSTER_NAME} \
  --certificate-authority=pki/ca.crt \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=https://${KUBERNETES_PUBLIC_ADDRESS}:6443 \
  --kubeconfig=${KCONFIG}

kubectl config set-credentials ${KUSER} \
  --client-certificate=pki/${KCERT}.crt \
  --client-key=pki/${KCERT}.key \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --kubeconfig=${KCONFIG}

kubectl config set-context ${KUSER}@${CLUSTER_NAME} \
  --cluster=${CLUSTER_NAME} \
  --user=${KUSER} \
  --kubeconfig=${KCONFIG}

kubectl config use-context ${KUSER}@${CLUSTER_NAME} --kubeconfig=${KCONFIG}
kubectl config view --kubeconfig=${KCONFIG}

kube-scheduler kubeconfig

CONTROLLER1_IP=$(getent ahostsv4 k8s-controller-1 | tail -1 | awk '{print $1}')
CONTROLLER2_IP=$(getent ahostsv4 k8s-controller-2 | tail -1 | awk '{print $1}')
INTERNAL_IP=$(hostname -I | awk '{print $1}')
KUBERNETES_PUBLIC_ADDRESS=$INTERNAL_IP

CLUSTER_NAME="default"
KCONFIG=scheduler.kubeconfig
KUSER="system:kube-scheduler"
KCERT=kube-scheduler

cd /etc/kubernetes/

kubectl config set-cluster ${CLUSTER_NAME} \
  --certificate-authority=pki/ca.crt \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=https://${KUBERNETES_PUBLIC_ADDRESS}:6443 \
  --kubeconfig=${KCONFIG}

kubectl config set-credentials ${KUSER} \
  --client-certificate=pki/${KCERT}.crt \
  --client-key=pki/${KCERT}.key \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --kubeconfig=${KCONFIG}

kubectl config set-context ${KUSER}@${CLUSTER_NAME} \
  --cluster=${CLUSTER_NAME} \
  --user=${KUSER} \
  --kubeconfig=${KCONFIG}

kubectl config use-context ${KUSER}@${CLUSTER_NAME} --kubeconfig=${KCONFIG}
kubectl config view --kubeconfig=${KCONFIG}

admin kubeconfig

CONTROLLER1_IP=$(getent ahostsv4 k8s-controller-1 | tail -1 | awk '{print $1}')
CONTROLLER2_IP=$(getent ahostsv4 k8s-controller-2 | tail -1 | awk '{print $1}')
INTERNAL_IP=$(hostname -I | awk '{print $1}')
KUBERNETES_PUBLIC_ADDRESS=$INTERNAL_IP

CLUSTER_NAME="default"
KCONFIG=admin.kubeconfig
KUSER="kubernetes-admin"
KCERT=admin

cd /etc/kubernetes/

kubectl config set-cluster ${CLUSTER_NAME} \
  --certificate-authority=pki/ca.crt \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=https://${KUBERNETES_PUBLIC_ADDRESS}:6443 \
  --kubeconfig=${KCONFIG}

kubectl config set-credentials ${KUSER} \
  --client-certificate=pki/${KCERT}.crt \
  --client-key=pki/${KCERT}.key \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --kubeconfig=${KCONFIG}

kubectl config set-context ${KUSER}@${CLUSTER_NAME} \
  --cluster=${CLUSTER_NAME} \
  --user=${KUSER} \
  --kubeconfig=${KCONFIG}

kubectl config use-context ${KUSER}@${CLUSTER_NAME} --kubeconfig=${KCONFIG}
kubectl config view --kubeconfig=${KCONFIG}

Deploy etcd

etcd is a distributed key-value store used for storing state of distributed
applications like Kubernetes.

Recommendation: run etcd under the etcd user.

  1. Deploy etcd on all controller nodes;
TAG=v3.1.8
URL=https://github.com/coreos/etcd/releases/download/$TAG

cd
curl -# -LO $URL/etcd-$TAG-linux-amd64.tar.gz
tar xvf etcd-$TAG-linux-amd64.tar.gz
chown -Rh root:root etcd-$TAG-linux-amd64/
find etcd-$TAG-linux-amd64/ -xdev -type f -exec chmod 0755 '{}' \;
cp etcd-$TAG-linux-amd64/etcd* /usr/bin/
mkdir -p /var/lib/etcd
CONTROLLER1_IP=$(getent ahostsv4 k8s-controller-1 | tail -1 | awk '{print $1}')
CONTROLLER2_IP=$(getent ahostsv4 k8s-controller-2 | tail -1 | awk '{print $1}')
INTERNAL_IP=$(hostname -I | awk '{print $1}')

ETCD_CLUSTER_TOKEN="default-27a5f27fe2" # this should be unique per cluster
ETCD_NAME=$(hostname --short)

ETCD_CERT_FILE=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd.crt
ETCD_CERT_KEY_FILE=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd.key
ETCD_PEER_CERT_FILE=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd-peer.crt
ETCD_PEER_KEY_FILE=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd-peer.key
ETCD_CA_FILE=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd-ca.crt
ETCD_PEER_CA_FILE=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd-ca.crt

cat > /etc/systemd/system/etcd.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=etcd
Documentation=https://coreos.com/etcd/docs/latest/
After=network.target

[Service]
ExecStart=/usr/bin/etcd \\
  --name ${ETCD_NAME} \\
  --listen-client-urls https://${INTERNAL_IP}:2379,http://127.0.0.1:2379 \\
  --advertise-client-urls https://${INTERNAL_IP}:2379 \\
  --data-dir=/var/lib/etcd \\
  --cert-file=${ETCD_CERT_FILE} \\
  --key-file=${ETCD_CERT_KEY_FILE} \\
  --peer-cert-file=${ETCD_PEER_CERT_FILE} \\
  --peer-key-file=${ETCD_PEER_KEY_FILE} \\
  --trusted-ca-file=${ETCD_CA_FILE} \\
  --peer-trusted-ca-file=${ETCD_CA_FILE} \\
  --peer-client-cert-auth \\
  --client-cert-auth \\
  --initial-advertise-peer-urls https://${INTERNAL_IP}:2380 \\
  --listen-peer-urls https://${INTERNAL_IP}:2380 \\
  --initial-cluster-token ${ETCD_CLUSTER_TOKEN} \\
  --initial-cluster k8s-controller-1=https://${CONTROLLER1_IP}:2380,k8s-controller-2=https://${CONTROLLER2_IP}:2380 \\
  --initial-cluster-state new
Restart=always
RestartSec=10s

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable etcd
systemctl start etcd
systemctl status etcd -l

Verify etcd is working

Using etcdctl:

etcdctl \
  --ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd-ca.crt \
  --cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd.crt \
  --key-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd.key \
  cluster-health

etcdctl \
  --ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd-ca.crt \
  --cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd.crt \
  --key-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd.key \
  member list

Using openssl:

echo -e "GET /health HTTP/1.1\nHost: $INTERNAL_IP\n" \
  | timeout 2s openssl s_client -CAfile /etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd-ca.crt \
                                -cert /etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd.crt \
                                -key /etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd.key \
                                -connect $INTERNAL_IP:2379 \
                                -ign_eof

Control plane deployment

Kubernetes control plane consist of:

  1. kube-apiserver;
  2. kube-controller-manager;
  3. kube-scheduler;
  • Deploy kubernetes control plane on all controller nodes;

Kubernetes API Server

CONTROLLER1_IP=$(getent ahostsv4 k8s-controller-1 | tail -1 | awk '{print $1}')
CONTROLLER2_IP=$(getent ahostsv4 k8s-controller-2 | tail -1 | awk '{print $1}')
INTERNAL_IP=$(hostname -I | awk '{print $1}')
SERVICE_CLUSTER_IP_RANGE="10.96.0.0/12"

cat > /etc/systemd/system/kube-apiserver.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes API Server
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes
After=network.target

[Service]
ExecStart=/usr/bin/kube-apiserver \\
  --apiserver-count=2 \\
  --allow-privileged=true \\
  --admission-control=NamespaceLifecycle,LimitRanger,ServiceAccount,PersistentVolumeLabel,DefaultStorageClass,ResourceQuota,DefaultTolerationSeconds \\
  --authorization-mode=RBAC \\
  --secure-port=6443 \\
  --bind-address=0.0.0.0 \\
  --advertise-address=${INTERNAL_IP} \\
  --insecure-port=0 \\
  --insecure-bind-address=127.0.0.1 \\
  --audit-log-maxage=30 \\
  --audit-log-maxbackup=3 \\
  --audit-log-maxsize=100 \\
  --audit-log-path=/var/log/kube-audit.log \\
  --client-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.crt \\
  --etcd-cafile=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd-ca.crt \\
  --etcd-certfile=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd.crt \\
  --etcd-keyfile=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd.key \\
  --etcd-servers=https://${CONTROLLER1_IP}:2379,https://${CONTROLLER2_IP}:2379 \\
  --service-account-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/sa.pub \\
  --service-cluster-ip-range=${SERVICE_CLUSTER_IP_RANGE} \\
  --service-node-port-range=30000-32767 \\
  --tls-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/kube-apiserver.crt \\
  --tls-private-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/kube-apiserver.key \\
  --experimental-bootstrap-token-auth=true \\
  --kubelet-client-certificate=/etc/kubernetes/pki/apiserver-kubelet-client.crt \\
  --kubelet-client-key=/etc/kubernetes/pki/apiserver-kubelet-client.key \\
  --kubelet-preferred-address-types=InternalIP,ExternalIP,Hostname \\
  --requestheader-client-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/front-proxy-ca.crt \\
  --requestheader-username-headers=X-Remote-User \\
  --requestheader-group-headers=X-Remote-Group \\
  --requestheader-allowed-names=front-proxy-client \\
  --requestheader-extra-headers-prefix=X-Remote-Extra- \\
  --v=2
Restart=always
RestartSec=10s

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable kube-apiserver
systemctl start kube-apiserver
systemctl status kube-apiserver -l

Kubernetes Controller Manager

CLUSTER_CIDR="10.96.0.0/16"
SERVICE_CLUSTER_IP_RANGE="10.96.0.0/12"
CLUSTER_NAME="default"

cat > /etc/systemd/system/kube-controller-manager.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Controller Manager
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes
After=network.target

[Service]
ExecStart=/usr/bin/kube-controller-manager \\
  --kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/controller-manager.kubeconfig \\
  --address=127.0.0.1 \\
  --leader-elect=true \\
  --controllers=*,bootstrapsigner,tokencleaner \\
  --service-account-private-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/sa.key \\
  --insecure-experimental-approve-all-kubelet-csrs-for-group=system:bootstrappers \\
  --cluster-cidr=${CLUSTER_CIDR} \\
  --cluster-name=${CLUSTER_NAME} \\
  --service-cluster-ip-range=${SERVICE_CLUSTER_IP_RANGE} \\
  --cluster-signing-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.crt \\
  --cluster-signing-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.key \\
  --root-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.crt \\
  --use-service-account-credentials=true \\
  --v=2
Restart=always
RestartSec=10s

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable kube-controller-manager
systemctl start kube-controller-manager
systemctl status kube-controller-manager -l

Kubernetes Scheduler

cat > /etc/systemd/system/kube-scheduler.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Scheduler
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes
After=network.target

[Service]
ExecStart=/usr/bin/kube-scheduler \\
  --leader-elect=true \\
  --kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/scheduler.kubeconfig \\
  --address=127.0.0.1 \\
  --v=2
Restart=always
RestartSec=10s

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable kube-scheduler
systemctl start kube-scheduler
systemctl status kube-scheduler -l

Verify the control plane

export KUBECONFIG=/etc/kubernetes/admin.kubeconfig
kubectl version
kubectl get componentstatuses

etcd will report "bad certificate" in kubernetes 1.6, but is fixed in 1.7
https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/pull/39716#issuecomment-296811189

kubectl bash completion

This might be handy:

yum -y install bash-completion
source /etc/profile.d/bash_completion.sh
source <(kubectl completion bash)

Prepare boostrapping part

  1. Create the bootstrap token and kubeconfig which will be used by kubelets to
    join the Kubernetes cluster;
  2. Expose the kubernetes CA file and the sanitized bootstrap kubeconfig to
    assist future clients joining the cluster;

Generate bootstrap token

Run this once and remember BOOTSTRAP_TOKEN

TOKEN_PUB=$(openssl rand -hex 3)
TOKEN_SECRET=$(openssl rand -hex 8)
BOOTSTRAP_TOKEN="${TOKEN_PUB}.${TOKEN_SECRET}"

kubectl -n kube-system create secret generic bootstrap-token-${TOKEN_PUB} \
        --type 'bootstrap.kubernetes.io/token' \
        --from-literal description="cluster bootstrap token" \
        --from-literal token-id=${TOKEN_PUB} \
        --from-literal token-secret=${TOKEN_SECRET} \
        --from-literal usage-bootstrap-authentication=true \
        --from-literal usage-bootstrap-signing=true

kubectl -n kube-system get secret/bootstrap-token-${TOKEN_PUB} -o yaml

Create bootstrap kubeconfig

INTERNAL_IP=$(hostname -I | awk '{print $1}')
KUBERNETES_PUBLIC_ADDRESS=$INTERNAL_IP

CLUSTER_NAME="default"
KCONFIG="bootstrap.kubeconfig"
KUSER="kubelet-bootstrap"

cd /etc/kubernetes

kubectl config set-cluster ${CLUSTER_NAME} \
  --certificate-authority=pki/ca.crt \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=https://${KUBERNETES_PUBLIC_ADDRESS}:6443 \
  --kubeconfig=${KCONFIG}

kubectl config set-context ${KUSER}@${CLUSTER_NAME} \
  --cluster=${CLUSTER_NAME} \
  --user=${KUSER} \
  --kubeconfig=${KCONFIG}

kubectl config use-context ${KUSER}@${CLUSTER_NAME} --kubeconfig=${KCONFIG}
kubectl config view --kubeconfig=${KCONFIG}

Expose CA and bootstrap kubeconfig via configmap

Make sure the bootstrap kubeconfig file does not contain the bootstrap token
before you expose it via the cluster-info configmap.

kubectl -n kube-public create configmap cluster-info \
        --from-file /etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.crt \
        --from-file /etc/kubernetes/bootstrap.kubeconfig

Allow anonymous user to acceess the cluster-info configmap:

kubectl -n kube-public create role system:bootstrap-signer-clusterinfo \
        --verb get --resource configmaps
kubectl -n kube-public create rolebinding kubeadm:bootstrap-signer-clusterinfo \
        --role system:bootstrap-signer-clusterinfo --user system:anonymous

Allow a bootstrapping worker node join the cluster:

kubectl create clusterrolebinding kubeadm:kubelet-bootstrap \
        --clusterrole system:node-bootstrapper --group system:bootstrappers

Install Docker & Kubelet

Install Docker and Kubelet on all controllers and workers.

  1. Install Docker;
  2. Retrieve ca.crt and bootstrap.kubeconfig files from the cluster API kube
    endpoint;
  3. Install CNI plugins;
  4. Deploy the kubelet;

Docker

I used CentOS 7.3 here. Adjust docker settings for your installation in case
you are going to use different distribution.

yum install -y docker

sed -i 's;\(^DOCKER_NETWORK_OPTIONS=$\);\1--iptables=false;' \
    /etc/sysconfig/docker-network
sed -i 's;\(^DOCKER_STORAGE_OPTIONS=$\);\1--storage-driver overlay;' \
    /etc/sysconfig/docker-storage

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable docker
systemctl start docker

Worker binaries

Install these binaries on all worker nodes:

TAG=v1.6.4
URL=https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/$TAG/bin/linux/amd64

curl -# -L -o /usr/bin/kube-proxy $URL/kube-proxy
curl -# -L -o /usr/bin/kubelet $URL/kubelet
curl -# -L -o /usr/bin/kubectl $URL/kubectl

chmod +x -- /usr/bin/kube*
mkdir -p /var/lib/{kubelet,kube-proxy}

Retrieve CA and the bootstrap kubeconfig

Note that this skips the TLS verification. You might choose to use an
alternative method for obtaining the CA certificate.

mkdir -p /etc/kubernetes/pki

kubectl -n kube-public get cm/cluster-info \
        --server https://k8s-controller-1:6443 --insecure-skip-tls-verify=true \
        --username=system:anonymous --output=jsonpath='{.data.ca\.crt}' \
  | tee /etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.crt

kubectl -n kube-public get cm/cluster-info \
        --server https://k8s-controller-1:6443 --insecure-skip-tls-verify=true \
        --username=system:anonymous \
        --output=jsonpath='{.data.bootstrap\.kubeconfig}' \
  | tee /etc/kubernetes/bootstrap.kubeconfig

Now write previously generated BOOTSTRAP_TOKEN to the bootstrap kubeconfig:

read -r -s -p "BOOTSTRAP_TOKEN: " BOOTSTRAP_TOKEN

kubectl config set-credentials kubelet-bootstrap \
  --token=${BOOTSTRAP_TOKEN} \
  --kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/bootstrap.kubeconfig

Install CNI plugins

Container Network Interface (CNI) - networking for Linux containers.

To find the latest CNI binary release refer to -
https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/blob/master/cluster/images/hyperkube/Makefile

cd
mkdir -p /etc/cni/net.d /opt/cni

ARCH=amd64
CNI_RELEASE=0799f5732f2a11b329d9e3d51b9c8f2e3759f2ff
URL=https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/network-plugins
curl -sSL $URL/cni-${ARCH}-${CNI_RELEASE}.tar.gz | tar -xz -C /opt/cni

Kubernetes Kubelet

CLUSTER_DNS_IP=10.96.0.10

mkdir -p /etc/kubernetes/manifests

cat > /etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Kubelet
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes
After=docker.service
Requires=docker.service

[Service]
ExecStart=/usr/bin/kubelet \\
  --experimental-bootstrap-kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/bootstrap.kubeconfig \\
  --kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf \\
  --require-kubeconfig=true \\
  --pod-manifest-path=/etc/kubernetes/manifests \\
  --allow-privileged=true \\
  --network-plugin=cni \\
  --cni-conf-dir=/etc/cni/net.d \\
  --cni-bin-dir=/opt/cni/bin \\
  --cluster-dns=${CLUSTER_DNS_IP} \\
  --cluster-domain=cluster.local \\
  --authorization-mode=Webhook \\
  --client-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.crt \\
  --cgroup-driver=systemd \\
  --cert-dir=/etc/kubernetes
Restart=always
RestartSec=10s

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable kubelet
systemctl start kubelet
systemctl status kubelet -l

Make controller nodes unschedulable by any pods:

for i in k8s-controller-1 k8s-controller-2; do
  kubectl label node $i node-role.kubernetes.io/master=
  kubectl taint nodes $i node-role.kubernetes.io/master=:NoSchedule
done

Deploy essential kubernetes components

Essential kubernetes components:

  1. kube-proxy;
  2. kube-dns;
  3. weave-net CNI plugin;

kube-proxy

Install kube-proxy on all controllers & workers.

Create a kube-proxy service account:

Create a kube-proxy service account only if you are not planning to use x509
certificate to authenticate the kube-proxy role.

The JWT token will be automatically created once you create a service account.

kubectl -n kube-system create serviceaccount kube-proxy

Create a kube-proxy kubeconfig:

INTERNAL_IP=$(hostname -I | awk '{print $1}')
KUBERNETES_PUBLIC_ADDRESS=$INTERNAL_IP

export KUBECONFIG=/etc/kubernetes/admin.kubeconfig
SECRET=$(kubectl -n kube-system get sa/kube-proxy \
                 --output=jsonpath='{.secrets[0].name}')
JWT_TOKEN=$(kubectl -n kube-system get secret/$SECRET \
                    --output=jsonpath='{.data.token}' | base64 -d)

CLUSTER_NAME="default"
KCONFIG="kube-proxy.kubeconfig"
cd /etc/kubernetes

kubectl config set-cluster ${CLUSTER_NAME} \
  --certificate-authority=pki/ca.crt \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=https://${KUBERNETES_PUBLIC_ADDRESS}:6443 \
  --kubeconfig=${KCONFIG}

kubectl config set-context ${CLUSTER_NAME} \
  --cluster=${CLUSTER_NAME} \
  --user=default \
  --namespace=default \
  --kubeconfig=${KCONFIG}

kubectl config set-credentials ${CLUSTER_NAME} \
  --token=${JWT_TOKEN} \
  --kubeconfig=${KCONFIG}

kubectl config use-context ${CLUSTER_NAME} --kubeconfig=${KCONFIG}
kubectl config view --kubeconfig=${KCONFIG}

Bind a kube-proxy service account (from kube-system namespace) to a
clusterrole system:node-proxier to allow RBAC:

kubectl create clusterrolebinding kubeadm:node-proxier \
        --clusterrole system:node-proxier \
        --serviceaccount kube-system:kube-proxy

Deliver kube-proxy kubeconfig to the rest of worker nodes:

for i in k8s-worker-1 k8s-worker-2; do
  scp -p -- /etc/kubernetes/kube-proxy.kubeconfig $i:/etc/kubernetes/
done

Create a kube-proxy service file and run it:

mkdir /var/lib/kube-proxy

cat > /etc/systemd/system/kube-proxy.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Kube Proxy
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes
After=network.target

[Service]
ExecStart=/usr/bin/kube-proxy \\
  --kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kube-proxy.kubeconfig \\
  --v=2
Restart=always
RestartSec=10s

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable kube-proxy
systemctl start kube-proxy
systemctl status kube-proxy -l

Kube-DNS

export DNS_DOMAIN="cluster.local"
export DNS_SERVER_IP="10.96.0.10"

cd /etc/kubernetes/manifests/

URL=https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/master/cluster/addons/dns
curl -sSL -o - $URL/kubedns-controller.yaml.sed \
  | sed -e "s/\\\$DNS_DOMAIN/${DNS_DOMAIN}/g" > kubedns-controller.yaml
curl -sSL -o - $URL/kubedns-svc.yaml.sed \
  | sed -e "s/\\\$DNS_SERVER_IP/${DNS_SERVER_IP}/g" > kubedns-svc.yaml
curl -sSLO $URL/kubedns-sa.yaml
curl -sSLO $URL/kubedns-cm.yaml

for i in kubedns-{sa,cm,controller,svc}.yaml; do
  kubectl --namespace=kube-system apply -f $i;
done

Weave Net CNI plugin

https://www.weave.works/docs/net/latest/kube-addon/

cd /etc/kubernetes/manifests
curl -sSL -o weave-kube-1.6.yaml https://git.io/weave-kube-1.6
kubectl apply -f weave-kube-1.6.yaml

To view weave-net status:

curl -sSL -o /usr/local/bin/weave \
  https://github.com/weaveworks/weave/releases/download/latest_release/weave \
  && chmod +x /usr/local/bin/weave
weave status
weave status connections
weave status peers

End?

That's all folks!

Kubernetes cluster is now up & running.

You can view its state by running:

kubectl get csr
kubectl get nodes -o wide
kubectl get pods --all-namespaces -o wide
kubectl get svc --all-namespaces -o wide
kubectl get all --all-namespaces --show-labels

Enabling weave-net encryption

To enable weave-net encryption, it is enough to export the WEAVE_PASSWORD
environment variable to weave-net containers and restart the relevant pods:

[root@k8s-controller-1 ~]# diff -Nur weave-kube-1.6.yaml /etc/kubernetes/manifests/weave-kube-1.6.yaml
--- weave-kube-1.6.yaml 2017-05-26 22:02:53.793355946 +0200
+++ /etc/kubernetes/manifests/weave-kube-1.6.yaml       2017-05-26 22:04:24.215869495 +0200
@@ -59,6 +59,9 @@
   image: weaveworks/weave-kube:1.9.5
   command:
 - /home/weave/launch.sh
+          env:
+            - name: WEAVE_PASSWORD
+              value: "Tr7W2wTpjG5fzFXCV5PmXCp9ay4WLN21"
   livenessProbe:
 initialDelaySeconds: 30
 httpGet:

Delete weave-net pods so that weave-net daemonset will automatically redeploy
them applying a new configuration:

kubectl -n kube-system delete pods -l name=weave-net

Check the status:

[root@k8s-controller-1 ~]# weave status connections
-> [redacted]:6783     established encrypted   fastdp f6:50:45:ba:df:9d(k8s-controller-2) encrypted=truemtu=1376
<- [redacted]:44629    established encrypted   fastdp 3a:34:e8:06:06:e2(k8s-worker-1) encrypted=truemtu=1376
<- [redacted]:55055    established encrypted   fastdp fe:4c:df:33:4a:8e(k8s-worker-2) encrypted=truemtu=1376
-> [redacted]:6783     failed                  cannot connect to ourself, retry: never

Additional apps

Since you have a running kubernetes cluster now, you may want to deploy some
apps.

Kubernetes Dashboard

cd /etc/kubernetes/manifests
curl -sSLO https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/dashboard/master/src/deploy/kubernetes-dashboard.yaml
kubectl apply -f kubernetes-dashboard.yaml
kubectl -n kube-system expose deployment kubernetes-dashboard \
        --name kubernetes-dashboard-nodeport --type=NodePort

At the current moment you
cannot specify the nodePort with "kubectl expose" command

So you would need to find it this way:

# kubectl -n kube-system get svc/kubernetes-dashboard-nodeport
NAME                            CLUSTER-IP      EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)          AGE
kubernetes-dashboard-nodeport   10.97.194.198   <nodes>       9090:32685/TCP   1m

After that you can access the Kubernetes Dashboard by visiting either one:

Weave Scope

https://www.weave.works/docs/scope/latest/installing/#k8s

cd /etc/kubernetes/manifests
curl -sSL -o scope.yaml \
     "https://cloud.weave.works/k8s/v1.6/scope.yaml?k8s-service-type=NodePort"
kubectl -n kube-system apply -f scope.yaml

Find out the nodePort:

# kubectl -n kube-system get svc/weave-scope-app
NAME              CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)        AGE
weave-scope-app   10.100.167.248   <nodes>       80:30830/TCP   31s

Now you can access the Weave Scope by visiting either one:

Kubernetes Grafana

https://github.com/kubernetes/heapster/tree/master/deploy/kube-config/influxdb

mkdir /etc/kubernetes/manifests/monitoring
cd /etc/kubernetes/manifests/monitoring

URL=https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/heapster/master/deploy/kube-config
curl -sSLO $URL/influxdb/influxdb.yaml
curl -sSLO $URL/rbac/heapster-rbac.yaml
curl -sSLO $URL/influxdb/heapster.yaml
curl -sSLO $URL/influxdb/grafana.yaml
kubectl apply -f influxdb.yaml
kubectl apply -f heapster-rbac.yaml
kubectl apply -f heapster.yaml
kubectl apply -f grafana.yaml
kubectl -n kube-system expose deployment monitoring-grafana \
        --name monitoring-grafana-nodeport --type=NodePort

Find out the nodePort:

# kubectl -n kube-system get svc/monitoring-grafana-nodeport
NAME                          CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)          AGE
monitoring-grafana-nodeport   10.108.103.241   <nodes>       3000:31358/TCP   23s

Or alternatively:

kubectl -n kube-system get svc/monitoring-grafana \
        --output=jsonpath='{.spec.clusterIP}:{.spec.ports[0].nodePort}'; echo

Now you can access the Grafana by visiting either one:

Sock Shop

Sock Shop is pretty heavy app and it is going to take more resources than you
would have available by this time.

Hence, you might want to join an additional worker node to your cluster or
delete apps that you have just deployed (grafana, heapster, influxdb,
weavescope, kubernetes dashboard).

kubectl create namespace sock-shop
kubectl apply -n sock-shop -f "https://raw.githubusercontent.com/microservices-demo/microservices-demo/fe48e0fb465ab694d50d0c9e51299ac75a7e3e47/deploy/kubernetes/complete-demo.yaml"

Find out the nodePort:

# kubectl -n sock-shop get svc front-end
NAME        CLUSTER-IP      EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)        AGE
front-end   10.110.164.38   <nodes>       80:30001/TCP   19s

# kubectl get pods -n sock-shop -o wide

Now you can access the Sock Shop by visiting either one:

To uninstall the socks shop sample app, just remove its namespace:

kubectl delete namespace sock-shop

Weave-net network performance test

Make sure to deploy your containers on different worker nodes.

kubectl run c1 --image centos:7 --labels k8s-app=my-centos -- sleep 3600
kubectl run c2 --image centos:7 --labels k8s-app=my-centos -- sleep 3600

With weave-net encryption and fastdp enabled:

[root@c1-281931205-nflnh ~]# iperf3 -c 10.32.0.3
Connecting to host 10.32.0.3, port 5201
[  4] local 10.34.0.0 port 57352 connected to 10.32.0.3 port 5201
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr  Cwnd
[  4]   0.00-1.00   sec  75.0 MBytes   628 Mbits/sec   58    556 KBytes
[  4]   1.00-2.00   sec  71.1 MBytes   598 Mbits/sec  222    446 KBytes
[  4]   2.00-3.00   sec  77.2 MBytes   647 Mbits/sec    0    557 KBytes
[  4]   3.00-4.00   sec  76.3 MBytes   640 Mbits/sec   33    640 KBytes
[  4]   4.00-5.00   sec  81.2 MBytes   682 Mbits/sec  154    720 KBytes
[  4]   5.00-6.00   sec  84.4 MBytes   707 Mbits/sec    0    798 KBytes
[  4]   6.00-7.00   sec  70.7 MBytes   593 Mbits/sec   35    630 KBytes
[  4]   7.00-8.00   sec  76.9 MBytes   645 Mbits/sec  175    696 KBytes
[  4]   8.00-9.00   sec  71.1 MBytes   596 Mbits/sec    0    763 KBytes
[  4]   9.00-10.00  sec  78.3 MBytes   658 Mbits/sec    0    833 KBytes
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr
[  4]   0.00-10.00  sec   762 MBytes   639 Mbits/sec  677             sender
[  4]   0.00-10.00  sec   760 MBytes   637 Mbits/sec                  receiver

Without weave-net encryption and without fastdp:

[root@c1-281931205-nflnh /]# iperf3 -c 10.32.0.3 -P1
Connecting to host 10.32.0.3, port 5201
[  4] local 10.34.0.0 port 59676 connected to 10.32.0.3 port 5201
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr  Cwnd
[  4]   0.00-1.01   sec  5.43 MBytes  45.3 Mbits/sec   27   68.5 KBytes
[  4]   1.01-2.00   sec  5.44 MBytes  45.7 Mbits/sec   22   64.6 KBytes
[  4]   2.00-3.00   sec  5.83 MBytes  49.1 Mbits/sec   17   82.8 KBytes
[  4]   3.00-4.00   sec  6.00 MBytes  50.4 Mbits/sec   25   76.3 KBytes
[  4]   4.00-5.00   sec  5.20 MBytes  43.5 Mbits/sec   21   64.6 KBytes
[  4]   5.00-6.00   sec  5.26 MBytes  44.0 Mbits/sec   23   60.8 KBytes
[  4]   6.00-7.00   sec  5.44 MBytes  45.9 Mbits/sec   16   54.3 KBytes
[  4]   7.00-8.00   sec  6.04 MBytes  50.7 Mbits/sec   22   51.7 KBytes
[  4]   8.00-9.00   sec  5.82 MBytes  48.8 Mbits/sec   15   60.8 KBytes
[  4]   9.00-10.00  sec  5.75 MBytes  48.3 Mbits/sec    5   78.9 KBytes
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr
[  4]   0.00-10.00  sec  56.2 MBytes  47.2 Mbits/sec  193             sender
[  4]   0.00-10.00  sec  56.2 MBytes  47.2 Mbits/sec                  receiver

iperf Done.

Surprisingly, I have got a worse bandwith without the encryption.

This happened because fastdp (fast datapath) was not enabled when using
weave-net without encryption.

sleeve indicates Weave Net's fall-back encapsulation method is used:

[root@k8s-worker-1 ~]# weave status connections
<- [redacted]:57823 established sleeve f6:50:45:ba:df:9d(k8s-controller-2) mtu=1438
<- [redacted]:37717 established sleeve 46:d6:a6:c6:1e:f2(k8s-controller-1) mtu=1438
<- [redacted]:51252 established sleeve fe:4c:df:33:4a:8e(k8s-worker-2) mtu=1438
-> [redacted]:6783  failed      cannot connect to ourself, retry: never

Here is the result without encryption but with fastdp enabled:

Note: tested after cluster reinstallation.

[root@c1-281931205-z5z3m /]# iperf3 -c 10.40.0.2
Connecting to host 10.40.0.2, port 5201
[  4] local 10.32.0.2 port 59414 connected to 10.40.0.2 port 5201
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr  Cwnd
[  4]   0.00-1.00   sec  79.9 MBytes   670 Mbits/sec  236    539 KBytes
[  4]   1.00-2.00   sec  69.7 MBytes   584 Mbits/sec    0    625 KBytes
[  4]   2.00-3.00   sec  69.9 MBytes   586 Mbits/sec    0    698 KBytes
[  4]   3.00-4.00   sec  73.3 MBytes   615 Mbits/sec   38    577 KBytes
[  4]   4.00-5.00   sec  88.8 MBytes   745 Mbits/sec   19    472 KBytes
[  4]   5.00-6.00   sec  85.9 MBytes   721 Mbits/sec    0    586 KBytes
[  4]   6.00-7.00   sec  92.1 MBytes   772 Mbits/sec    0    688 KBytes
[  4]   7.00-8.00   sec  84.8 MBytes   712 Mbits/sec   39    575 KBytes
[  4]   8.00-9.00   sec  80.2 MBytes   673 Mbits/sec    0    668 KBytes
[  4]   9.00-10.00  sec  88.3 MBytes   741 Mbits/sec   19    568 KBytes
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr
[  4]   0.00-10.00  sec   813 MBytes   682 Mbits/sec  351             sender
[  4]   0.00-10.00  sec   811 MBytes   680 Mbits/sec                  receiver

iperf Done.
# weave status connections
<- [redacted]:34158 established fastdp 56:ae:60:6b:be:79(k8s-controller-2) mtu=1376
-> [redacted]:6783  established fastdp 12:af:67:0d:0d:1a(k8s-worker-1) mtu=1376
<- [redacted]:52937 established fastdp 86:27:10:95:00:e5(k8s-worker-2) mtu=1376
-> [redacted]:6783  failed      cannot connect to ourself, retry: never

More read on weave-net fast datapath:

  1. https://www.weave.works/blog/weave-fast-datapath/
  2. https://www.weave.works/blog/weave-docker-networking-performance-fast-data-path/
  3. https://www.weave.works/docs/net/latest/using-weave/fastdp/
  4. https://github.com/weaveworks/weave/blob/master/docs/fastdp.md

Cleanup:

kubectl delete deployments/c1
kubectl delete deployments/c2

Andrey Arapov

Andrey Arapov

"If you want to live a happy life, tie it to a goal, not to people or things." - Albert Einstein

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